In analyzing brain development or identifying disease it is important to understand anatomical age-related changes and shape differences. Data for these studies is frequently spatiotemporal and collected from normal and/or abnormal subjects. However, images and shapes over time often have complex structures and are best treated as elements of non-Euclidean spaces. This dissertation tackles problems of uncovering time-varying changes and statistical group differences in image or shape time-series. There are three major contributions: 1) a framework of parametric regression models on manifolds to capture time-varying changes. These include a metamorphic geodesic regression approach for image time-series and standard geodesic regression, time-warped geodesic regression, and cubic spline regression on the Grassmann manifold; 2) a spatiotemporal statistical atlas approach, which augments a commonly used atlas such as the median with measures of data variance via a weighted functional boxplot; 3) hypothesis testing for shape analysis to detect group differences between populations. The proposed method for cross-sectional data uses shape ordering and hence does not require dense shape correspondences or strong distributional assumptions on the data. For longitudinal data, hypothesis testing is performed on shape trajectories which are estimated from individual subjects. Applications of these methods include 1) capturing brain development and degeneration; 2) revealing growth patterns in pediatric upper airways and the scoring of airway abnormalities; 3) detecting group differences in longitudinal corpus callosum shapes of subjects with dementia versus normal controls.